Difference between revisions of "DASM"

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[http://channelf.se/veswiki/images/4/40/Dasm-2.20.11.7z DASM 2.20.11 (.7z, 116kB)]
 
[http://channelf.se/veswiki/images/4/40/Dasm-2.20.11.7z DASM 2.20.11 (.7z, 116kB)]
 +
 +
 +
Copy of the DASM documentation:
 +
<pre>
 +
Commandline for processor F8, f3 removes 2 byte header and -o sets the name of output:
 +
 +
>> dasm name_of_file.asm -f3 -oFile_out.bin
 +
 +
DOCUMENTATION FOR DASM, a high level macro cross assembler for:
 +
 +
-6502 (and 6507)
 +
-68705
 +
-6803
 +
-HD6303 (extension of 6803)
 +
-68HC11
 +
 +
DASM was created in 1988 by Matthew Dillon (dillon@apollo.backplane.com)
 +
and modified in 1995 by Olaf 'Rhialto' Seibert (rhialto@polderland.nl), and
 +
is now updated and maintained by Andrew Davie (atari2600@taswegian.com)
 +
 +
DASM's homepage is http://www.atari2600.org/dasm
 +
 +
DASM is freely re-distributable, and provided with full source-code to
 +
allow recompilation for other target-platforms.
 +
 +
 +
PREFACE FROM MATT:
 +
 +
    Over the last year my work has included writing software to drive small
 +
    single-chip microcomputers for various things (remote telemetry units,
 +
    for instance).  I have had need to program quite a few different
 +
    processors over that time.
 +
 +
    At the beginning, I used an awful macro assembler running on an IBM-PC.
 +
    I *really* wanted to do it on my Amiga.  Thus the writing of this
 +
    program.
 +
 +
    Feel free to suggest other similar processors for me to add to the list!
 +
    The processor type is specified with a pseudo-op (see below).  This
 +
    assembler produces only binary output in one of three formats described
 +
    below.  In general, one has a master assembly file which INCLUDEs all
 +
    the modules.
 +
 +
    Also provided is FTOHEX which converts an output file in one of the
 +
    three formats to an intel-hex format suitable for many intelligent
 +
    prom programmers (I have a GTEK).
 +
 +
    YES it's packed with features!
 +
 +
FEATURES:
 +
 +
    -fast assembly
 +
    -supports several common 8 bit processor models (NOT 8086, thank god!)
 +
    -takes as many passes as needed
 +
    -automatic checksum generation, special symbol '...'
 +
    -several binary output formats available.  Format 2 allows reverse
 +
    indexed origins.
 +
    -multiple segments, BSS segments (no generation), relocatable origin.
 +
    -expressions, as in C but [] is used instead of () for parenthesis.
 +
    (all expressions are computed with 32 bit integers)
 +
    -no real limitation on label size, label values are 32 bits.
 +
    -complex pseudo ops, repeat loops, macros, etc....
 +
 +
 +
PREFACE FROM ANDREW (APRIL/2003)
 +
 +
The documentation is lagging a bit behind the modifications.  Essentially
 +
the information contained herein is correct, but there have been minor
 +
changes to the formatting of output data.
 +
 +
Please see the accompanying ‘README.TXT’ in the distributable root directory
 +
for a list of recent changes to the package.
 +
 +
 +
COMMAND LINE:
 +
 +
dasm srcfile [options]
 +
 +
options:    -f#    select output format 1-3 (default 1, see below)
 +
    -oname  select output file name (else a.out)
 +
    -lname  select list file name  (else none generated)
 +
    -Lname  list file, containing all passes
 +
    -sname  select symbol dump file (else none generated)
 +
    -v#    select verboseness 0-4 (default 0, see below)
 +
    -d     debug mode
 +
    -DSYMBOL     predefine a symbol, set to 0
 +
    -DSYMBOL=EXPRESSION    predefine a symbol, set to exp
 +
    -MSYMBOL=EXPRESSION define label as in EQM (same as –D)
 +
 +
    -Idir    search directory for include and incbin
 +
    -p#    max number of passes
 +
    -P#    max number of passes, with less checks
 +
 +
    -T# sort symbol table by (0 = alphabetic (default)
 +
or (non-zero= address/value)
 +
 +
Example:    dasm master.asm -f2 -oout -llist -v3 -DVER=4
 +
 +
Note: A slash (/) or dash (-) must prefix options.
 +
 +
 +
Return Value:
 +
 +
The assembler will return 0 on successful compilation, 1 otherwise.
 +
 +
 +
FORMAT OPTIONS:
 +
 +
    1  (DEFAULT)
 +
 +
The output file contains a two byte origin in LSB,MSB order, then
 +
data until the end of the file.
 +
 +
Restrictions: Any instructions which generate output (within an
 +
initialized segment) must do so with an ascending PC.  Initialized
 +
segments must occur in ascending order.
 +
 +
    2  RAS (Random Access Segment)
 +
 +
The output file contains one or more hunks.  Each hunk consists
 +
of a 2 byte origin (LSB,MSB), 2 byte length (LSB,MSB), and that
 +
number of data bytes.  The hunks occur in the same order as
 +
initialized segments in the assembly.  There are no restrictions
 +
to segment ordering (i.e. reverse indexed ORG statements are
 +
allowed).  The next hunk begins after the previous hunk's data,
 +
until the end of the file.
 +
 +
    3  RAW (Raw)
 +
 +
The output file contains data only (format #1 without the 2 byte
 +
header).  Restrictions are the same as for format #1.
 +
 +
Format 3    RAW (Raw format)
 +
    Same as format 1, but NO header origin is generated.  You get
 +
    nothing but data.
 +
 +
VERBOSE OPTIONS:
 +
 +
    0 (default)
 +
 +
Only warnings and errors are generated
 +
 +
    1
 +
-Segment list information generated after each pass
 +
-Include file names are displayed
 +
-statistics on why the assembler is going to make another pass
 +
    R1,R2 reason code: R3
 +
    where R1 is the number of times the assembler encountered
 +
    something requiring another pass to resolve.  R2 is the
 +
    number of references to unknown symbols which occured in the
 +
    pass (but only R1 determines the need for another pass).  R3
 +
    is a BITMASK of the reasons why another pass is required.
 +
    See the end of this document for bit designations.
 +
 +
    2
 +
mismatches between program labels and equates are displayed
 +
on every pass (usually none occur in the first pass unless you
 +
have re-declared a symbol name).
 +
 +
displayed information for symbols:
 +
    ???? = unknown value
 +
    str  = symbol is a string
 +
    eqm  = symbol is an eqm macro
 +
    (r)  = symbol has been referenced
 +
    (s)  = symbol created with SET or EQM pseudo-op
 +
 +
    3
 +
    Unresolved and unreferenced symbols are displayed every pass
 +
    (unsorted, sorry)
 +
 +
    4
 +
    An entire symbol list is displayed every pass to STDOUT.
 +
    (unsorted, sorry)
 +
 +
 +
 +
PROCESSOR MODEL:
 +
 +
    The processor model is chosen with the PROCESSOR pseudo-op and should
 +
    be the first thing you do in your assembly file.  Different processor
 +
    models use different integer formats (see below).  The word order does
 +
    not effect the headers in the output files (-f1 and -f2), which are
 +
    always LSB,MSB.  The word ordering effects all address, word, and
 +
    long generation.
 +
 +
    Only one PROCESSOR pseudo-op may be declared in the entire assembly,
 +
    and should be the first thing encountered.
 +
 +
-6502     LSB,MSB
 +
-68HC11    MSB,LSB
 +
-68705     MSB,LSB
 +
-6803     MSB,LSB
 +
-HD6303    MSB,LSB
 +
-F8        ?
 +
 +
SEGMENTS:
 +
    The SEG pseudo-op creates/sets the current segment.  Each segment has
 +
    it's own origin and is optionally an 'uninitialized' segment.
 +
    Unitialized segments produce no output and have no restrictions.  This
 +
    is useful for determining the size of a certain assembly sequence
 +
    without generating code, and for assigning RAM to labels.
 +
 +
    'Initialized' segments produce output.  The following should be
 +
    considered when generating roms:
 +
 +
    (1) The default fill character when using ORG (and format 1 or 3) to
 +
skip forward is 00.  This is a GLOBAL default and effects all
 +
segments.  See ORG.
 +
 +
    (2) The default fill character for DS is 00 and is independant of
 +
the default fill character for ORG (see DS).
 +
 +
GENERAL:
 +
    Most everything is recursive.  You cannot have a macro DEFINITION
 +
    within a macro definition, but can nest macro calls, repeat loops,
 +
    and include files.
 +
 +
    The other major feature in this assembler is the SUBROUTINE pseudo-op,
 +
    which logically separates local labels (starting with a dot).  This
 +
    allows you to reuse label names (for example, .1 .fail) rather than
 +
    think up crazy combinations of the current subroutine to keep it all
 +
    unique.
 +
 +
    Almost nothing need be resolved in pass 1. The assembler will make
 +
    multiple passes in an attempt to resolve the assembly (including just
 +
    one pass if everything is resolved immediately).
 +
 +
 +
PSEUDOPS:
 +
 +
INCLUDE    "name"
 +
 +
    Include another assembly file.
 +
 +
#if OlafIncbin
 +
 +
[label] INCBIN     "name"
 +
 +
    Include another file literally in the output.
 +
#endif
 +
#if OlafIncdir
 +
 +
INCDIR     "directory name"
 +
 +
    Add the given directory name to the list of places where
 +
    INCLUDE and INCBIN search their files. First, the names are
 +
    tried relative to the current directory, if that fails and
 +
    the name is not an absolute pathname, the list is tried.
 +
    You can optionally end the name with a /. AmigaDOS filename
 +
    conventions imply that two slashes at the
 +
    end of an INCDIR (dir//) indicates the parent directory, and
 +
    so does an INCLUDE /filename.
 +
 +
    The command-line option -Idir is equivalent to an INCDIR
 +
    directive placed before the source file.
 +
 +
    Currently the list is not cleared between passes, but each
 +
    exact directory name is added to the list only once.
 +
    This may change in subsequent releases.
 +
#endif
 +
[label] SEG[.U]    name
 +
 +
    This sets the current segment, creating it if neccessary.  If
 +
    a .U extension is specified on segment creation, the segment
 +
    is an UNINITIALIZED segment.  The .U is not needed when going
 +
    back to an already created uninitialized segment, though it
 +
    makes the code more readable.
 +
 +
[label] DC[.BWL]    exp,exp,exp ...
 +
 +
    Declare data in the current segment.  No output is generated if
 +
    within a .U segment.  Note that the byte ordering for the
 +
    selected processor is used for each entry.
 +
 +
    The default size extension is a byte.
 +
#if OlafByte
 +
    BYTE, WORD and LONG are synonyms for DC.B, DC.W and DC.L.
 +
#endif
 +
 +
[label] DS[.BWL]    exp[,filler]
 +
 +
    declare space (default filler is 0). Data is not generated if
 +
    within an uninitialized segment.  Note that the number of bytes
 +
    generated is exp * entrysize (1,2, or 4)
 +
 +
    The default size extension is a byte.
 +
 +
    Note that the default filler is always 0 (has nothing to do
 +
    with the ORG default filler).
 +
 +
[label] DV[.BWL]    eqmlabel exp,exp,exp....
 +
 +
    This is equivalent to DC, but each exp in the list is passed
 +
    through the symbolic expression specified by the EQM label.
 +
    The expression is held in a special symbol dotdot '..' on each
 +
    call to the EQM label.
 +
 +
    See EQM below
 +
 +
[label] HEX     hh hh hh..
 +
 +
    This sets down raw HEX data.  Spaces are optional between bytes.
 +
    NO EXPRESSIONS are allowed.  Note that you do NOT place a $
 +
    in front of the digits.  This is a short form for creating
 +
    tables compactly.  Data is always layed down on a byte-by-byte
 +
    basis.
 +
 +
    Example:     HEX 1A45 45 13254F 3E12
 +
 +
ERR
 +
 +
    Abort assembly.
 +
 +
[label] ORG     exp[,DefaultFillVal]
 +
 +
    This pseudop sets the current origin.  You can also set the
 +
    global default fill character (a byte value) with this
 +
    pseudoop.  NOTE that no filler is generated until the first
 +
    data-generating opcode/psueoop is encountered after this one.
 +
    Sequences like:
 +
 +
org  0,255
 +
org  100,0
 +
org  200
 +
dc  23
 +
 +
    will result in 200 zero's and a 23. This allows you to specify
 +
    some ORG, then change your mind and specify some other (lower
 +
    address) ORG without causing an error (assuming nothing is
 +
    generated inbetween).
 +
 +
    Normally, DS and ALIGN are used to generate specific filler
 +
    values.
 +
 +
[label] RORG     exp
 +
 +
    This activates the relocatable origin.  All generated
 +
    addresses, including '.', although physically placed at the
 +
    true origin, will use values from the relocatable origin.
 +
    While in effect both the physical origin and relocatable origin
 +
    are updated.
 +
 +
    The relocatable origin can skip around (no limitations).  The
 +
    relocatable origin is a function of the segment.  That is, you
 +
    can still SEG to another segment that does not have a
 +
    relocatable origin activated, do other (independant) stuff
 +
    there, and then switch back to the current segment and continue
 +
    where you left off.
 +
 +
PROCESSOR model
 +
 +
    do not quote.  model is one of: 6502,6803,HD6303,68705,68HC11,F8
 +
    Can only be executed once, and should be the first thing
 +
    encountered by the assembler.
 +
 +
ECHO exp,exp,exp
 +
 +
    The expressions (which may also be strings), are echoed on the
 +
    screen and into the list file.
 +
 +
[label] REND
 +
 +
    Deactivate the relocatable origin for the current segment.
 +
    Generation uses the real origin for reference.
 +
 +
[label] ALIGN     N[,fill]
 +
 +
    Align the current PC to an N byte boundry. The default
 +
    fill character is always 0, and has nothing to do with
 +
    the default fill character specifiable in an ORG.
 +
 +
[label] SUBROUTINE  name
 +
 +
    This isn't really a subroutine, but a boundry between sets of
 +
    temporary labels (which begin with a dot). Temporary label
 +
    names are unique within segments of code bounded by SUBROUTINE:
 +
 +
CHARLIE subroutine
 +
ldx #10
 +
.1 dex
 +
bne .1
 +
BEN subroutine
 +
ldx #20
 +
.qq dex
 +
bne .qq
 +
 +
    Automatic temporary label boundries occur for each macro level.
 +
    Usually temporary labels are used in macros and within actual
 +
    subroutines (so you don't have to think up a thousand different
 +
    names)
 +
 +
 +
symbol EQU     exp
 +
#if OlafAsgn
 +
symbol =     exp
 +
#endif
 +
 +
    The expression is evaluated and the result assigned to the
 +
    symbol.
 +
 +
#if OlafDotAssign
 +
    If this option is enabled, you can use the common idiom of
 +
 +
. EQU . + 3 (or . = .+3)
 +
 +
    in other words, you can assign to "." (or "*" if OlafStar
 +
    is also enabled) instead of an ORG or RORG directive.
 +
    More formally, a directive of the form ". EQU expr" is
 +
    interpreted as if it were written " (R)ORG expr".
 +
    The RORG is used if a relocatable origin is already in effect,
 +
    otherwise ORG is used. Note that the first example is NOT
 +
    equivalent with "DS.B 3" when the rorg is in effect.
 +
#endif
 +
 +
symbol EQM     exp
 +
 +
    The STRING representing the expression is assigned to the
 +
    symbol.  Occurances of the label in later expressions causes
 +
    the string to be evaluated for each occurance.  Also used in
 +
    conjuction with the DV psuedo-op.
 +
 +
symbol SET     exp
 +
 +
    Same as EQU, but the symbol may be reassigned later.
 +
 +
MAC     name
 +
 +
    Declare a macro.  lines between MAC and ENDM are the macro.
 +
    You cannot recursively declare a macro.  You CAN recursively
 +
    use a macro (reference a macro in a macro).  No label is
 +
    allowed to the left of MAC or ENDM.
 +
 +
    Arguments passed to macros are referenced with: {#}.  The first
 +
    argument passed to a macro would thus be {1}.  You should
 +
    always use LOCAL labels (.name) inside macros which you use
 +
    more than once. {0} represents an EXACT substitution of the
 +
    ENTIRE argument line.
 +
 +
ENDM
 +
 +
    end of macro def.  NO LABEL ALLOWED ON THE LEFT!
 +
 +
MEXIT
 +
 +
    Used in conjuction with conditionals.  Exits the current macro
 +
    level.
 +
 +
[label] IFCONST    exp
 +
 +
    Is TRUE if the expression result is defined,  FALSE otherwise
 +
    and NO error is generated if the expression is undefined.
 +
 +
[label] IFNCONST    exp
 +
 +
    Is TRUE if the expression result is undefined, FALSE otherwise
 +
    and NO error is generated if the expression is undefined.
 +
 +
[label] IF     exp
 +
 +
    Is TRUE if the expression result is defined AND non-zero.
 +
    Is FALSE if the expression result is defined AND zero.
 +
    Neither IF or ELSE will be executed if the expression result
 +
    is undefined.  If the expression is undefined, another assembly
 +
    pass is automatically taken.
 +
#if OlafPhase
 +
    If this happens, phase errors in the next pass only will not
 +
    be reported unless the verboseness is 1 or more.
 +
#endif
 +
 +
[label] ELSE
 +
 +
    ELSE the current IF.
 +
 +
[label] ENDIF
 +
[label] EIF
 +
 +
    Terminate an IF. ENDIF and EIF are equivalent.
 +
 +
[label] REPEAT     exp
 +
[label] REPEND
 +
 +
    Repeat code between REPEAT/REPEND 'exp' times.
 +
 +
#if DAD
 +
  if exp == 0,
 +
    the code repeats forever.  exp is evaluated once.
 +
 +
If exp == 0, the repeat loop is ignored.
 +
If exp < 0, a warning “REPEAT parameter < 0 (ignored)” is generated
 +
and the repeat loop is ignored.
 +
#endif
 +
 +
Y  SET    0
 +
    REPEAT  10
 +
X  SET    0
 +
    REPEAT  10
 +
    DC     X,Y
 +
X  SET    X + 1
 +
    REPEND
 +
Y  SET    Y + 1
 +
    REPEND
 +
 +
    generates an output table: 0,0 1,0 2,0 ... 9,0  0,1 1,1 2,1
 +
    ... 9,1, etc...
 +
 +
    Labels within a REPEAT/REPEND should be temporary labels with a
 +
    SUBROUTINE pseudo-op to keep them unique.
 +
 +
    The Label to the left of REPEND is assigned AFTER the loop
 +
    FINISHES.
 +
 +
 +
[label] XXX[.force] operand
 +
 +
    XXX is some mnemonic, not necessarily three characters long.
 +
    The .FORCE optional extension is used to force specific
 +
    addressing modes (see below).
 +
 +
[label] LIST ON or OFF
 +
 +
    Globally turns listing on or off, starting with the current
 +
    line.
 +
#if OlafList
 +
    When you give LOCALON or LOCALOFF the effect is local to the
 +
    current macro or included file. For a line to be listed both
 +
    the global and local list switches must be on.
 +
#endif
 +
 +
#if OlafDotop
 +
All pseudo-ops (and incidentally also the mnemonics) can be
 +
prefixed with a . for compatibility with other assemblers.
 +
So .IF is the same as IF. This works only because lone .FORCE
 +
extensions are meaningless.
 +
#endif
 +
 +
#if OlafFreeFormat
 +
The format of each input line is free: first all leading
 +
spaces are discarded, and the first word is examined. If it
 +
does not look like a directive or opcode (as known at that point),
 +
it is taken as a label. This is sort-of nasty if you like labels
 +
with names like END.
 +
The two xxxFormat options are mutually exclusive.
 +
#endif
 +
 +
#if OlafHashFormat
 +
With this option an initial # (after optional initial spaces)
 +
turns the next word into a directive/opcode.
 +
A ^ skips more spaces and makes the next word a label.
 +
#endif
 +
 +
GENERAL:
 +
 +
    The label will be set to the current ORG/RORG either before or after
 +
    a pseudo-op is executed.  Most of the time, the label to the left of a
 +
    pseudo-op is the current ORG/RORG. The following pseudo-op's labels are
 +
    created AFTER execution of the pseudo-op:
 +
 +
SEG, ORG, RORG, REND, ALIGN
 +
 +
EXTENSIONS:
 +
 +
    FORCE extensions are used to force an addressing mode.  In some cases,
 +
    you can optimize the assembly to take fewer passes by telling it the
 +
    addressing mode.  Force extensions are also used with DS,DC, and DV
 +
    to determine the element size.  NOT ALL EXTENSIONS APPLY TO ALL
 +
    PROCESSORS!
 +
 +
example:    lda.z  charlie
 +
 +
i  -implied
 +
ind -indirect word
 +
0  -implied
 +
0x  -implied indexing (0,x)
 +
0y  -implied indexing (0,y)
 +
b  -byte address
 +
bx  -byte address indexed x
 +
by  -byte address indexed y
 +
w  -word address
 +
wx  -word address indexed x
 +
wy  -word address indexed y
 +
l  -longword (4 bytes) (DS/DC/DV)
 +
r  -relative
 +
u  -uninitialized (SEG)
 +
 +
First character equivalent substitutions:
 +
 +
b z d     (byte, zeropage, direct)
 +
w e a     (word, extended, absolute)
 +
 +
 +
ASSEMBLER PASSES:
 +
    The assembler may have to make several passes through the source
 +
    code to resolve all generation.  The number of passes is not
 +
    limited to two.  Since this may result in an unexpected, verbose
 +
    option 2, 3, and 4 have been provided to allow determination of the
 +
    cause. The assembler will give up if it thinks it can't do the
 +
    assembly in *any* number of passes.
 +
 +
    Error reporting could be better....
 +
 +
#if OlafPasses
 +
 +
    The check if another pass might resolve the source is pretty good, but
 +
    not perfect. You can specify the maximum number of passes to do
 +
    (default -p10), and with the -P option you can override the normal check.
 +
    This allows the following contrived example to resolve in 12 passes:
 +
 +
org 1
 +
repeat [[x < 11] ? [x-11]] + 11
 +
dc.b x
 +
repend
 +
    x:
 +
 +
#endif
 +
 +
EXPRESSIONS:
 +
[] may be used to group expressions.  The precedense of operators
 +
is the same as for the C language in almost all respects.  Use
 +
brackets [] when you are unsure.  The reason () cannot be used to
 +
group expressions is due to a conflict with the 6502 and other
 +
assembly languages.
 +
#if OlafBraKet
 +
It is possible to use () instead of [] in expressions following
 +
pseudo-ops, but not following mnemonics. So this works:
 +
if target & (pet3001 | pet4001), but this doesn't:
 +
lda #target & (pet3001 | pet4001).
 +
#endif
 +
 +
Some operators, such as ||, can return a resolved value even if
 +
one of the expressions is not resolved.  Operators are as follows:
 +
 +
NOTE WELL!  Some operations will result in non-byte values when a
 +
byte value was wanted. For example: ~1  is NOT $FF, but
 +
$FFFFFFFF.  Preceding it with a < (take LSB of) will solve the
 +
problem.  ALL ARITHMETIC IS CARRIED OUT IN 32 BITS.  The final
 +
Result will be automatically truncated to the maximum handleable
 +
by the particular machine language (usually a word) when applied
 +
to standard mnemonics.
 +
 +
prec     UNARY
 +
 +
20  ~exp    one's complement.
 +
20  -exp    negation
 +
20  !exp    not expression (returns 0 if exp non-zero, 1 if exp zero)
 +
20  <exp    take LSB byte of a 16 bit expression
 +
20  >exp    take MSB byte of an expression
 +
 +
    BINARY
 +
 +
19  *     multiplication
 +
19  /     division
 +
19  %     mod
 +
18  +     addition
 +
18  -     subtraction
 +
17  >>,<<  shift right, shift left
 +
16  >,>=    greater, greater equal
 +
16  <,<=    smaller, smaller equal
 +
15  ==     equal to.  Try to use this instead of =
 +
15  =     exactly the same as == (exists compatibility)
 +
15  !=     not equal to
 +
14  &     logical and
 +
13  ^     logical xor
 +
12  |     logical or
 +
11  &&     left expression is true AND right expression is true
 +
10  ||     left expression is true OR right expression is true
 +
9  ?     if left expression is true, result is right expression,
 +
    else result is 0. [10 ? 20] returns 20
 +
8  []     group expressions
 +
7  ,     separate expressions in list (also used in
 +
    addressing mode resolution, BE CAREFUL!
 +
 +
    Note: The effect of the C conditional operator a ? b : c can be
 +
    had with [a ? b - c] + c.
 +
 +
    Constants:
 +
 +
nnn decimal
 +
0nnn octal
 +
%nnn binary
 +
$nnn hex
 +
'c      character
 +
"cc.."  string (NOT zero terminated if in DC/DS/DV)
 +
[exp]d the constant expressions is evaluated and it's decimal
 +
result turned into an ascii string.
 +
 +
    Symbols:
 +
 +
... -holds CHECKSUM so far (of actual-generated stuff)
 +
.. -holds evaluated value in DV pseudo op
 +
.name -represents a temporary symbol name.  Temporary symbols
 +
may be reused inside MACROS and between SUBROUTINES, but
 +
may not be referenced across macros or across SUBROUTINEs.
 +
. -current program counter (as of the beginning of the
 +
instruction).
 +
name -beginning with an alpha character and containing letters,
 +
numbers, or '_'.  Represents some global symbol name.
 +
#if OlafStar
 +
* -synonym for ., when not confused as an operator.
 +
#endif
 +
#if OlafDol
 +
nnn$ -temporary label, much like .name, except that defining
 +
a non-temporary label has the effect that SUBROUTINE
 +
has on .name. They are unique within macros, like
 +
.name.  Note that 0$ and 00$ are distinct, as are 8$
 +
and 010$.
 +
(mainly for compatibility with other assemblers.)
 +
#endif
 +
 +
 +
WHY codes:
 +
    Each bit in the WHY word (verbose option 1) is a reason (why
 +
    the assembler needs to do another pass), as follows:
 +
 +
    bit 0  expression in mnemonic not resolved
 +
1  -
 +
2  expression in a DC not resolved
 +
3  expression in a DV not resolved (probably in DV's EQM symbol)
 +
4  expression in a DV not resolved (could be in DV's EQM symbol)
 +
5  expression in a DS not resolved
 +
6  expression in an ALIGN not resolved
 +
7  ALIGN: Relocatable origin not known (if in RORG at the time)
 +
8  ALIGN: Normal origin not known (if in ORG at the time)
 +
9  EQU:  expression not resolved
 +
10  EQU:  value mismatch from previous pass (phase error)
 +
11  IF:    expression not resolved
 +
12  REPEAT: expression not resolved
 +
 +
13  a program label has been defined after it has been
 +
    referenced (forward reference) and thus we need another
 +
    pass
 +
14  a program label's value is different from that of the
 +
    previous pass (phase error)
 +
 +
    Certain errors will cause the assembly to abort immediately, others
 +
    will wait until the current pass is other. The remaining allow another
 +
    pass to occur in the hopes the error will fix itself.
 +
 +
 +
VERSIONS:
 +
 +
    V2.12
 +
-Fixed macro naming bug (macros wouldn't work if the name after
 +
the 'mac' was in upper case).
 +
 +
    V2.11
 +
-Fixed <exp >exp bug, <exp now means LSB, >exp MSB (it used to
 +
be reversed).
 +
-Fixed many bugs in macros and other things
 +
-Added automatic checksumming ... no more doing checksums manually!
 +
-Added several new processors, including 6502.
 +
-Source is now 16/32 bit int compatible, and will compile on an
 +
IBM-PC (the ultimate portability test)
 +
 +
    V2.01
 +
 +
-can now have REPEAT/REPEND's within macros
 +
-fill field for DS.W is a word (used to be a byte fill)
 +
-fill field for DS.L is a long (used to be a byte fill)
 +
</pre>

Latest revision as of 03:00, 19 August 2019

DASM is a versatile macro assembler with support for several 8-bit microprocessors including Fairchild F8, MOS 6502 & 6507, Motorola 6803, 68705 & 68HC11 and Hitachi HD6303.
Check here for latest official version

As DASM is an assembler for many processors you need to add the line "{tab}processor f8" as the first line to use it with the F8 System (don't write {tab} but insert a tab sign there, space/s will work as well). DASM is run from a command line unless you make a .bat file to simplify assembly and reassembly during a programming project (recommended). Easiest assembly of a F8-program called game.asm would be this:

dasm game.asm -f3 -output.bin

-f3 means it outputs raw data with no load address first. If you have problems with assembly errors then the option -L can be useful in order to find the reason.

dasm game.asm -f3 -output.bin -Lname-of-list.txt

You can then check the name-of-list.txt for the exact problem.

Local copy:
DASM 2.20.11 (.7z, 116kB)


Copy of the DASM documentation:

Commandline for processor F8, f3 removes 2 byte header and -o sets the name of output:

>> dasm name_of_file.asm -f3 -oFile_out.bin

DOCUMENTATION FOR DASM, a high level macro cross assembler for:

	-6502 (and 6507)
	-68705
	-6803
	-HD6303 (extension of 6803)
	-68HC11

DASM was created in 1988 by Matthew Dillon (dillon@apollo.backplane.com)
and modified in 1995 by Olaf 'Rhialto' Seibert (rhialto@polderland.nl), and
is now updated and maintained by Andrew Davie (atari2600@taswegian.com)

DASM's homepage is http://www.atari2600.org/dasm

DASM is freely re-distributable, and provided with full source-code to
allow recompilation for other target-platforms.


PREFACE FROM MATT:

    Over the last year my work has included writing software to drive small
    single-chip microcomputers for various things (remote telemetry units,
    for instance).  I have had need to program quite a few different
    processors over that time.

    At the beginning, I used an awful macro assembler running on an IBM-PC.
    I *really* wanted to do it on my Amiga.  Thus the writing of this
    program.

    Feel free to suggest other similar processors for me to add to the list!
    The processor type is specified with a pseudo-op (see below).  This
    assembler produces only binary output in one of three formats described
    below.  In general, one has a master assembly file which INCLUDEs all
    the modules.

    Also provided is FTOHEX which converts an output file in one of the
    three formats to an intel-hex format suitable for many intelligent
    prom programmers (I have a GTEK).

    YES it's packed with features!

FEATURES:

    -fast assembly
    -supports several common 8 bit processor models (NOT 8086, thank god!)
    -takes as many passes as needed
    -automatic checksum generation, special symbol '...'
    -several binary output formats available.  Format 2 allows reverse
     indexed origins.
    -multiple segments, BSS segments (no generation), relocatable origin.
    -expressions, as in C but [] is used instead of () for parenthesis.
     (all expressions are computed with 32 bit integers)
    -no real limitation on label size, label values are 32 bits.
    -complex pseudo ops, repeat loops, macros, etc....


PREFACE FROM ANDREW (APRIL/2003)

The documentation is lagging a bit behind the modifications.  Essentially 
the information contained herein is correct, but there have been minor 
changes to the formatting of output data.

Please see the accompanying ‘README.TXT’ in the distributable root directory 
for a list of recent changes to the package.


COMMAND LINE:

	dasm srcfile [options]

	options:    -f#     select output format 1-3 (default 1, see below)
		    -oname  select output file name (else a.out)
		    -lname  select list file name   (else none generated)
		    -Lname  list file, containing all passes
		    -sname  select symbol dump file (else none generated)
		    -v#     select verboseness 0-4 (default 0, see below)
		    -d	    debug mode
		    -DSYMBOL		    predefine a symbol, set to 0
		    -DSYMBOL=EXPRESSION     predefine a symbol, set to exp
		    -MSYMBOL=EXPRESSION		define label as in EQM (same as –D)

		     -Idir    search directory for include and incbin
		     -p#    max number of passes
		     -P#    max number of passes, with less checks

		     -T#	sort symbol table by (0 = alphabetic (default)
				or (non-zero= address/value)

	Example:    dasm master.asm -f2 -oout -llist -v3 -DVER=4

Note:	A slash (/) or dash (-) must prefix options.


Return Value:

	The assembler will return 0 on successful compilation, 1 otherwise.


FORMAT OPTIONS:

    1  (DEFAULT)

	The output file contains a two byte origin in LSB,MSB order, then
	data until the end of the file.

	Restrictions:	Any instructions which generate output (within an
	initialized segment) must do so with an ascending PC.  Initialized
	segments must occur in ascending order.

    2  RAS (Random Access Segment)

	The output file contains one or more hunks.  Each hunk consists
	of a 2 byte origin (LSB,MSB), 2 byte length (LSB,MSB), and that
	number of data bytes.  The hunks occur in the same order as
	initialized segments in the assembly.  There are no restrictions
	to segment ordering (i.e. reverse indexed ORG statements are
	allowed).  The next hunk begins after the previous hunk's data,
	until the end of the file.

    3  RAW (Raw)

	The output file contains data only (format #1 without the 2 byte
	header).  Restrictions are the same as for format #1.

	Format 3    RAW (Raw format)
	    Same as format 1, but NO header origin is generated.  You get
	    nothing but data.

VERBOSE OPTIONS:

    0	(default)

	Only warnings and errors are generated

    1
	-Segment list information generated after each pass
	-Include file names are displayed
	-statistics on why the assembler is going to make another pass
	    R1,R2 reason code: R3
	    where R1 is the number of times the assembler encountered
	    something requiring another pass to resolve.  R2 is the
	    number of references to unknown symbols which occured in the
	    pass (but only R1 determines the need for another pass).  R3
	    is a BITMASK of the reasons why another pass is required.
	    See the end of this document for bit designations.

    2
	mismatches between program labels and equates are displayed
	on every pass (usually none occur in the first pass unless you
	have re-declared a symbol name).

	displayed information for symbols:
	    ???? = unknown value
	    str  = symbol is a string
	    eqm  = symbol is an eqm macro
	    (r)  = symbol has been referenced
	    (s)  = symbol created with SET or EQM pseudo-op

    3
	    Unresolved and unreferenced symbols are displayed every pass
	    (unsorted, sorry)

    4
	    An entire symbol list is displayed every pass to STDOUT.
	    (unsorted, sorry)



PROCESSOR MODEL:

    The processor model is chosen with the PROCESSOR pseudo-op and should
    be the first thing you do in your assembly file.   Different processor
    models use different integer formats (see below).  The word order does
    not effect the headers in the output files (-f1 and -f2), which are
    always LSB,MSB.  The word ordering effects all address, word, and
    long generation.

    Only one PROCESSOR pseudo-op may be declared in the entire assembly,
    and should be the first thing encountered.

	-6502	    LSB,MSB
	-68HC11     MSB,LSB
	-68705	    MSB,LSB
	-6803	    MSB,LSB
	-HD6303     MSB,LSB
	-F8         ?

SEGMENTS:
    The SEG pseudo-op creates/sets the current segment.  Each segment has
    it's own origin and is optionally an 'uninitialized' segment.
    Unitialized segments produce no output and have no restrictions.  This
    is useful for determining the size of a certain assembly sequence
    without generating code, and for assigning RAM to labels.

    'Initialized' segments produce output.  The following should be
    considered when generating roms:

    (1) The default fill character when using ORG (and format 1 or 3) to
	skip forward is 00.  This is a GLOBAL default and effects all
	segments.  See ORG.

    (2) The default fill character for DS is 00 and is independant of
	the default fill character for ORG (see DS).

GENERAL:
    Most everything is recursive.  You cannot have a macro DEFINITION
    within a macro definition, but can nest macro calls, repeat loops,
    and include files.

    The other major feature in this assembler is the SUBROUTINE pseudo-op,
    which logically separates local labels (starting with a dot).  This
    allows you to reuse label names (for example, .1 .fail) rather than
    think up crazy combinations of the current subroutine to keep it all
    unique.

    Almost nothing need be resolved in pass 1.	The assembler will make
    multiple passes in an attempt to resolve the assembly (including just
    one pass if everything is resolved immediately).


PSEUDOPS:

	INCLUDE     "name"

	    Include another assembly file.

#if OlafIncbin

[label] INCBIN	    "name"

	    Include another file literally in the output.
#endif
#if OlafIncdir

	INCDIR	    "directory name"

	    Add the given directory name to the list of places where
	    INCLUDE and INCBIN search their files. First, the names are
	    tried relative to the current directory, if that fails and
	    the name is not an absolute pathname, the list is tried.
	    You can optionally end the name with a /. AmigaDOS filename
	    conventions imply that two slashes at the
	    end of an INCDIR (dir//) indicates the parent directory, and
	    so does an INCLUDE /filename.

	    The command-line option -Idir is equivalent to an INCDIR
	    directive placed before the source file.

	    Currently the list is not cleared between passes, but each
	    exact directory name is added to the list only once.
	    This may change in subsequent releases.
#endif
[label] SEG[.U]     name

	    This sets the current segment, creating it if neccessary.  If
	    a .U extension is specified on segment creation, the segment
	    is an UNINITIALIZED segment.  The .U is not needed when going
	    back to an already created uninitialized segment, though it
	    makes the code more readable.

[label] DC[.BWL]    exp,exp,exp ...

	    Declare data in the current segment.  No output is generated if
	    within a .U segment.  Note that the byte ordering for the
	    selected processor is used for each entry.

	    The default size extension is a byte.
#if OlafByte
	    BYTE, WORD and LONG are synonyms for DC.B, DC.W and DC.L.
#endif

[label] DS[.BWL]    exp[,filler]

	    declare space (default filler is 0). Data is not generated if
	    within an uninitialized segment.  Note that the number of bytes
	    generated is exp * entrysize (1,2, or 4)

	    The default size extension is a byte.

	    Note that the default filler is always 0 (has nothing to do
	    with the ORG default filler).

[label] DV[.BWL]    eqmlabel exp,exp,exp....

	    This is equivalent to DC, but each exp in the list is passed
	    through the symbolic expression specified by the EQM label.
	    The expression is held in a special symbol dotdot '..' on each
	    call to the EQM label.

	    See EQM below

[label] HEX	    hh hh hh..

	    This sets down raw HEX data.  Spaces are optional between bytes.
	    NO EXPRESSIONS are allowed.  Note that you do NOT place a $
	    in front of the digits.  This is a short form for creating
	    tables compactly.  Data is always layed down on a byte-by-byte
	    basis.

	    Example:	    HEX 1A45 45 13254F 3E12

	ERR

	    Abort assembly.

[label] ORG	    exp[,DefaultFillVal]

	    This pseudop sets the current origin.  You can also set the
	    global default fill character (a byte value) with this
	    pseudoop.  NOTE that no filler is generated until the first
	    data-generating opcode/psueoop is encountered after this one.
	    Sequences like:

		org  0,255
		org  100,0
		org  200
		dc   23

	    will result in 200 zero's and a 23. This allows you to specify
	    some ORG, then change your mind and specify some other (lower
	    address) ORG without causing an error (assuming nothing is
	    generated inbetween).

	    Normally, DS and ALIGN are used to generate specific filler
	    values.

[label] RORG	    exp

	    This activates the relocatable origin.  All generated
	    addresses, including '.', although physically placed at the
	    true origin, will use values from the relocatable origin.
	    While in effect both the physical origin and relocatable origin
	    are updated.

	    The relocatable origin can skip around (no limitations).  The
	    relocatable origin is a function of the segment.  That is, you
	    can still SEG to another segment that does not have a
	    relocatable origin activated, do other (independant) stuff
	    there, and then switch back to the current segment and continue
	    where you left off.

	PROCESSOR model

	    do not quote.  model is one of: 6502,6803,HD6303,68705,68HC11,F8
	    Can only be executed once, and should be the first thing
	    encountered by the assembler.

	ECHO exp,exp,exp

	    The expressions (which may also be strings), are echoed on the
	    screen and into the list file.

[label] REND

	    Deactivate the relocatable origin for the current segment.
	    Generation uses the real origin for reference.

[label] ALIGN	    N[,fill]

	    Align the current PC to an N byte boundry.	The default
	    fill character is always 0, and has nothing to do with
	    the default fill character specifiable in an ORG.

[label] SUBROUTINE  name

	    This isn't really a subroutine, but a boundry between sets of
	    temporary labels (which begin with a dot).	Temporary label
	    names are unique within segments of code bounded by SUBROUTINE:

		CHARLIE subroutine
			ldx #10
		.1	dex
			bne .1
		BEN	subroutine
			ldx #20
		.qq	dex
			bne .qq

	    Automatic temporary label boundries occur for each macro level.
	    Usually temporary labels are used in macros and within actual
	    subroutines (so you don't have to think up a thousand different
	    names)


symbol	EQU	    exp
#if OlafAsgn
symbol	=	    exp
#endif

	    The expression is evaluated and the result assigned to the
	    symbol.

#if OlafDotAssign
	    If this option is enabled, you can use the common idiom of

		. EQU . + 3	(or . = .+3)

	    in other words, you can assign to "." (or "*" if OlafStar
	    is also enabled) instead of an ORG or RORG directive.
	    More formally, a directive of the form ". EQU expr" is
	    interpreted as if it were written " (R)ORG expr".
	    The RORG is used if a relocatable origin is already in effect,
	    otherwise ORG is used. Note that the first example is NOT
	    equivalent with "DS.B 3" when the rorg is in effect.
#endif

symbol	EQM	    exp

	    The STRING representing the expression is assigned to the
	    symbol.  Occurances of the label in later expressions causes
	    the string to be evaluated for each occurance.  Also used in
	    conjuction with the DV psuedo-op.

symbol	SET	    exp

	    Same as EQU, but the symbol may be reassigned later.

	MAC	    name

	    Declare a macro.  lines between MAC and ENDM are the macro.
	    You cannot recursively declare a macro.  You CAN recursively
	    use a macro (reference a macro in a macro).  No label is
	    allowed to the left of MAC or ENDM.

	    Arguments passed to macros are referenced with: {#}.  The first
	    argument passed to a macro would thus be {1}.  You should
	    always use LOCAL labels (.name) inside macros which you use
	    more than once. {0} represents an EXACT substitution of the
	    ENTIRE argument line.

	ENDM

	    end of macro def.  NO LABEL ALLOWED ON THE LEFT!

	MEXIT

	    Used in conjuction with conditionals.  Exits the current macro
	    level.

[label] IFCONST     exp

	    Is TRUE if the expression result is defined,  FALSE otherwise
	    and NO error is generated if the expression is undefined.

[label] IFNCONST    exp

	    Is TRUE if the expression result is undefined, FALSE otherwise
	    and NO error is generated if the expression is undefined.

[label] IF	    exp

	    Is TRUE if the expression result is defined AND non-zero.
	    Is FALSE if the expression result is defined AND zero.
	    Neither IF or ELSE will be executed if the expression result
	    is undefined.  If the expression is undefined, another assembly
	    pass is automatically taken.
#if OlafPhase
	    If this happens, phase errors in the next pass only will not
	    be reported unless the verboseness is 1 or more.
#endif

[label] ELSE

	    ELSE the current IF.

[label] ENDIF
[label] EIF

	    Terminate an IF. ENDIF and EIF are equivalent.

[label] REPEAT	    exp
[label] REPEND

	    Repeat code between REPEAT/REPEND 'exp' times.

#if DAD
  		if exp == 0,
	    the code repeats forever.  exp is evaluated once.

		If exp == 0, the repeat loop is ignored.
		If exp < 0, a warning “REPEAT parameter < 0 (ignored)” is generated
 		and the repeat loop is ignored.
#endif
		
		Y   SET     0
		    REPEAT  10
		X   SET     0
		    REPEAT  10
		    DC	    X,Y
		X   SET     X + 1
		    REPEND
		Y   SET     Y + 1
		    REPEND

	    generates an output table:	0,0 1,0 2,0 ... 9,0  0,1 1,1 2,1
	    ... 9,1, etc...

	    Labels within a REPEAT/REPEND should be temporary labels with a
	    SUBROUTINE pseudo-op to keep them unique.

	    The Label to the left of REPEND is assigned AFTER the loop
	    FINISHES.


[label] XXX[.force] operand

	    XXX is some mnemonic, not necessarily three characters long.
	    The .FORCE optional extension is used to force specific
	    addressing modes (see below).

[label] LIST ON or OFF

	    Globally turns listing on or off, starting with the current
	    line.
#if OlafList
	    When you give LOCALON or LOCALOFF the effect is local to the
	    current macro or included file. For a line to be listed both
	    the global and local list switches must be on.
#endif

#if OlafDotop
	All pseudo-ops (and incidentally also the mnemonics) can be
	prefixed with a . for compatibility with other assemblers.
	So .IF is the same as IF. This works only because lone .FORCE
	extensions are meaningless.
#endif

#if OlafFreeFormat
	The format of each input line is free: first all leading
	spaces are discarded, and the first word is examined. If it
	does not look like a directive or opcode (as known at that point),
	it is taken as a label. This is sort-of nasty if you like labels
	with names like END.
	The two xxxFormat options are mutually exclusive.
#endif

#if OlafHashFormat
	With this option an initial # (after optional initial spaces)
	turns the next word into a directive/opcode.
	A ^ skips more spaces and makes the next word a label.
#endif

GENERAL:

    The label will be set to the current ORG/RORG either before or after
    a pseudo-op is executed.  Most of the time, the label to the left of a
    pseudo-op is the current ORG/RORG. The following pseudo-op's labels are
    created AFTER execution of the pseudo-op:

	SEG, ORG, RORG, REND, ALIGN

EXTENSIONS:

    FORCE extensions are used to force an addressing mode.  In some cases,
    you can optimize the assembly to take fewer passes by telling it the
    addressing mode.  Force extensions are also used with DS,DC, and DV
    to determine the element size.  NOT ALL EXTENSIONS APPLY TO ALL
    PROCESSORS!

	example:    lda.z   charlie

	i   -implied
	ind -indirect word
	0   -implied
	0x  -implied indexing (0,x)
	0y  -implied indexing (0,y)
	b   -byte address
	bx  -byte address indexed x
	by  -byte address indexed y
	w   -word address
	wx  -word address indexed x
	wy  -word address indexed y
	l   -longword (4 bytes) (DS/DC/DV)
	r   -relative
	u   -uninitialized (SEG)

	First character equivalent substitutions:

	b z d	    (byte, zeropage, direct)
	w e a	    (word, extended, absolute)


ASSEMBLER PASSES:
    The assembler may have to make several passes through the source
    code to resolve all generation.  The number of passes is not
    limited to two.  Since this may result in an unexpected, verbose
    option 2, 3, and 4 have been provided to allow determination of the
    cause. The assembler will give up if it thinks it can't do the
    assembly in *any* number of passes.

    Error reporting could be better....

#if OlafPasses

    The check if another pass might resolve the source is pretty good, but
    not perfect. You can specify the maximum number of passes to do
    (default -p10), and with the -P option you can override the normal check.
    This allows the following contrived example to resolve in 12 passes:

	org 1
	repeat [[x < 11] ? [x-11]] + 11
	dc.b	x
	repend
    x:

#endif

EXPRESSIONS:
	[] may be used to group expressions.  The precedense of operators
	is the same as for the C language in almost all respects.  Use
	brackets [] when you are unsure.  The reason () cannot be used to
	group expressions is due to a conflict with the 6502 and other
	assembly languages.
#if OlafBraKet
	It is possible to use () instead of [] in expressions following
	pseudo-ops, but not following mnemonics. So this works:
	if target & (pet3001 | pet4001), but this doesn't:
	lda #target & (pet3001 | pet4001).
#endif

	Some operators, such as ||, can return a resolved value even if
	one of the expressions is not resolved.   Operators are as follows:

	NOTE WELL!  Some operations will result in non-byte values when a
	byte value was wanted.	For example:	~1  is NOT $FF, but
	$FFFFFFFF.  Preceding it with a < (take LSB of) will solve the
	problem.  ALL ARITHMETIC IS CARRIED OUT IN 32 BITS.  The final
	Result will be automatically truncated to the maximum handleable
	by the particular machine language (usually a word) when applied
	to standard mnemonics.

	prec	    UNARY

	20  ~exp    one's complement.
	20  -exp    negation
	20  !exp    not expression (returns 0 if exp non-zero, 1 if exp zero)
	20  <exp    take LSB byte of a 16 bit expression
	20  >exp    take MSB byte of an expression

		    BINARY

	19  *	    multiplication
	19  /	    division
	19  %	    mod
	18  +	    addition
	18  -	    subtraction
	17  >>,<<   shift right, shift left
	16  >,>=    greater, greater equal
	16  <,<=    smaller, smaller equal
	15  ==	    equal to.  Try to use this instead of =
	15  =	    exactly the same as == (exists compatibility)
	15  !=	    not equal to
	14  &	    logical and
	13  ^	    logical xor
	12  |	    logical or
	11  &&	    left expression is true AND right expression is true
	10  ||	    left expression is true OR right expression is true
	 9  ?	    if left expression is true, result is right expression,
		    else result is 0.	[10 ? 20] returns 20
	 8  []	    group expressions
	 7  ,	    separate expressions in list (also used in
		    addressing mode resolution, BE CAREFUL!

    Note: The effect of the C conditional operator a ? b : c can be
    had with [a ? b - c] + c.

    Constants:

	nnn	decimal
	0nnn	octal
	%nnn	binary
	$nnn	hex
	'c      character
	"cc.."  string (NOT zero terminated if in DC/DS/DV)
	[exp]d	the constant expressions is evaluated and it's decimal
		result turned into an ascii string.

    Symbols:

	...	-holds CHECKSUM so far (of actual-generated stuff)
	..	-holds evaluated value in DV pseudo op
	.name	-represents a temporary symbol name.  Temporary symbols
		 may be reused inside MACROS and between SUBROUTINES, but
		 may not be referenced across macros or across SUBROUTINEs.
	.	-current program counter (as of the beginning of the
		 instruction).
	name	-beginning with an alpha character and containing letters,
		 numbers, or '_'.  Represents some global symbol name.
#if OlafStar
	*	-synonym for ., when not confused as an operator.
#endif
#if OlafDol
	nnn$	-temporary label, much like .name, except that defining
		 a non-temporary label has the effect that SUBROUTINE
		 has on .name.	They are unique within macros, like
		 .name.  Note that 0$ and 00$ are distinct, as are 8$
		 and 010$.
		 (mainly for compatibility with other assemblers.)
#endif


WHY codes:
    Each bit in the WHY word (verbose option 1) is a reason (why
    the assembler needs to do another pass), as follows:

    bit 0   expression in mnemonic not resolved
	1   -
	2   expression in a DC not resolved
	3   expression in a DV not resolved (probably in DV's EQM symbol)
	4   expression in a DV not resolved (could be in DV's EQM symbol)
	5   expression in a DS not resolved
	6   expression in an ALIGN not resolved
	7   ALIGN: Relocatable origin not known (if in RORG at the time)
	8   ALIGN: Normal origin not known	(if in ORG at the time)
	9   EQU:   expression not resolved
	10  EQU:   value mismatch from previous pass (phase error)
	11  IF:     expression not resolved
	12  REPEAT: expression not resolved

	13  a program label has been defined after it has been
	    referenced (forward reference) and thus we need another
	    pass
	14  a program label's value is different from that of the
	    previous pass (phase error)

    Certain errors will cause the assembly to abort immediately, others
    will wait until the current pass is other.	The remaining allow another
    pass to occur in the hopes the error will fix itself.


VERSIONS:

    V2.12
	-Fixed macro naming bug (macros wouldn't work if the name after
	 the 'mac' was in upper case).

    V2.11
	-Fixed <exp >exp bug, <exp now means LSB, >exp MSB (it used to
	 be reversed).
	-Fixed many bugs in macros and other things
	-Added automatic checksumming ... no more doing checksums manually!
	-Added several new processors, including 6502.
	-Source is now 16/32 bit int compatible, and will compile on an
	 IBM-PC (the ultimate portability test)

    V2.01

	-can now have REPEAT/REPEND's within macros
	-fill field for DS.W is a word (used to be a byte fill)
	-fill field for DS.L is a long (used to be a byte fill)